Items where Subject is "Section 11: Resisting fire spread from one building to another"

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    • Section 11: Resisting fire spread from one building to another (62)
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ADB1 2019 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2022 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of stairways in a protected shaft when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 11.5).

Department for Communities and Local Government, (2019) External walls of protected stairways. In: Approved Document B: Fire Safety - Volume 1: Dwellings. 2019 ed. Section 11: Resisting fire spread from one building to another, 1 (11.10). RIBA Publishing Publication, London, p. 86. ISBN 9781859469156

ADB1 2019 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

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ADB1 2022 Para:11.16 Methods for calculating acceptable unprotected area

Two simple methods are given for calculating the acceptable amount of unprotected area in an external wall that is a minimum of 1000mm from any point on the relevant boundary. More precise methods are described in BRE report BR 187 and may be used instead. When using BR 187 the following radiation intensity at each unprotected area should be assumed.
a. 84kw/m2 if the purpose group of the building is ‘residential’ (purpose groups 1 or 2), ‘office’ (purpose group 3) or ‘assembly and recreation’ (purpose group 5) or if the building is an open-sided multi-storey car park (purpose group 7(b)).
b. 168kw/m2 if the purpose group of the building is ‘shop and commercial’ (purpose group 4), ‘industrial’ (purpose group 6) or ‘storage and other non-residential’ (purpose group 7(a)).

UNSPECIFIED (2019) Methods for calculating acceptable unprotected area. In: UNSPECIFIED, (ed.) Approved Document B: Fire Safety - Volume 1: Dwellings. 2019 ed. Section 11: Resisting fire spread from one building to another, 1 (11.16). RIBA Publishing Publication, Place of Publication:, p. 89. ISBN 9781859469156

UNSPECIFIED Para:11.17 Method 1

This method applies to small buildings intended to be used for blocks of flats or dwellinghouses.

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UNSPECIFIED Para:11.18 Method 1

The building should not exceed three storeys in height (excluding basements) or 24m in length. Each side of the building should meet the limits stated in Diagram 11.7. Any small unprotected areas falling within the limits shown in Diagram 11.5 can be ignored.

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UNSPECIFIED Para:11.19 Method 2

This method may be used for buildings or compartments for which method 1 is not appropriate.

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

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UNSPECIFIED Para:11.20 Method 2

The building should not exceed 10m in height. Each side of the building should meet the limits stated in Table 11.1. Any areas falling within the limits shown in Diagram 11.5 can be ignored.

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UNSPECIFIED Para:11.21 Sprinkler systems

If a building is fitted throughout with a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E, either of the following is permitted.
a. The boundary distance can be halved, to a minimum distance of 1m.
b. The amount of unprotected area can be doubled.

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

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ADB1 2020 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the "residential" or "assembly and recreation" purpose groups (purpose group 1, 2 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

Department for Communities and Local Government, (2019) Boundaries. In: Approved Document B: Fire Safety - Volume 1: Dwellings. 2019 ed. Section 11: Resisting fire spread from one building to another, 1 (11.5). RIBA Publishing Publication, London, p. 83. ISBN 9781859469156

ADB1 2019 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.6 Diagram 11.6 The effect of a canopy on separation distance

NOTE: Projections from the building line, such as a canopy or a loading platform, can be ignored when assessing separation distance. This does not apply where the canopy is enclosed by side walls.
Distance to relevant boundary measured from building line
See para 11.12

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ADB1 2019 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2022 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has an external surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

Department for Communities and Local Government, (2019) Unprotected areas and fire resistance. In: Approved Document B: Fire Safety - Volume 1: Dwellings. 2019 ed. Section 11: Resisting fire spread from one building to another, 1 (11.7). RIBA Publishing Publication, London, p. 86. ISBN 9781859469156

ADB1 2019 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

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ADB1 2019 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

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ADB1 2019 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

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UNSPECIFIED Para:17.1(a) Section 17: Fire safety information

For building work involving the erection or extension of a relevant building (i.e. a building to which the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 applies, or will apply), or the relevant change of use of a building, fire safety information should be given to the responsible person at one of the following times.
a. When the project is complete.

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UNSPECIFIED Para:17.1(b) Section 17: Fire safety information

For building work involving the erection or extension of a relevant building (i.e. a building to which the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 applies, or will apply), or the relevant change of use of a building, fire safety information should be given to the responsible person at one of the following times.
b. When the building or extension is first occupied.

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.3(a) Essential information

Basic information on the location of fire protection measures may be sufficient. An as-built plan of the building should be provided showing all of the following.
a. Escape routes – this should include exit capacity (i.e. the maximum allowable number of people for each storey and for the building).

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.3(b) Essential information

Basic information on the location of fire protection measures may be sufficient. An as-built plan of the building should be provided showing all of the following.
b. Location of fire-separating elements (including cavity barriers in walk-in spaces).

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.3(c) Essential information

Basic information on the location of fire protection measures may be sufficient. An as-built plan of the building should be provided showing all of the following.
c. Fire doorsets, fire doorsets fitted with a self-closing device and other doors equipped with relevant hardware.

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.3(d) Essential information

Basic information on the location of fire protection measures may be sufficient. An as-built plan of the building should be provided showing all of the following.
d. Locations of fire and/or smoke detector heads, alarm call points, detection/alarm control boxes, alarm sounders, fire safety signage, emergency lighting, fire extinguishers, dry or wet fire mains and other firefighting equipment, and hydrants outside the building.

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.3(e) Essential information

Basic information on the location of fire protection measures may be sufficient. An as-built plan of the building should be provided showing all of the following.
e. Any sprinkler systems, including isolating valves and control equipment.

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.3(f) Essential information

Basic information on the location of fire protection measures may be sufficient. An as-built plan of the building should be provided showing all of the following.
f. Any smoke control systems, or ventilation systems with a smoke control function, including mode of operation and control systems.

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.3(g) Essential information

Basic information on the location of fire protection measures may be sufficient. An as-built plan of the building should be provided showing all of the following.
g. Any high risk areas (e.g. heating machinery).

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.4(a) Essential information

Details should be provided of all of the following.
a. Specifications of fire safety equipment provided, including routine maintenance schedules.

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.4(b) Essential information

Details should be provided of all of the following.
b. Any assumptions regarding the management of the building in the design of the fire safety arrangements.

UNSPECIFIED

UNSPECIFIED Para:17.4(c) Essential information

Details should be provided of all of the following.
c. Any provision enabling the evacuation of disabled people, which can be used when designing personal emergency evacuation plans.

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ADB1 2019 Para:17.5(a) Additional information for complex buildings

A detailed record should be provided of both of the following.
a. The fire safety strategy.

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ADB1 2019 Para:17.5(b) Additional information for complex buildings

A detailed record should be provided of both of the following.
b. Procedures for operating and maintaining any fire protection measures. This should include an outline cause and effect matrix/strategy for the building.
Further guidance is available in clause 9 and Annex H of BS 9999.

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ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(a) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
a. The fire safety strategy, including all assumptions in the design of the fire safety systems (such as fire load). Any risk assessments or risk analysis.

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ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(b) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
b. All assumptions in the design of the fire safety arrangements for the management of the building.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(c) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
c. All of the following.
i. Escape routes (including occupant load and capacity of escape routes).
ii. Any provision to enable the evacuation of disabled people.
iii. Escape strategy (e.g. simultaneous or phased).
iv. Muster points.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(d) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
d. All passive fire safety measures, including all of the following.
i. Compartmentation (i.e. location of fire-separating elements).
ii. Cavity barriers.
iii. Fire doorsets, including fire doorsets fitted with a self-closing device and other doors equipped with relevant hardware (e.g. electronic security locks).
iv. Duct dampers.
v. Fire shutters.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(d)(i) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
d. All passive fire safety measures, including all of the following.
i. Compartmentation (i.e. location of fire-separating elements).

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(d)(ii) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
d. All passive fire safety measures, including all of the following.
ii. Cavity barriers.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(d)(iii) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
d. All passive fire safety measures, including all of the following.
iii. Fire doorsets, including fire doorsets fitted with a self-closing device and other doors equipped with relevant hardware (e.g. electronic security locks).

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 UNSPECIFIED Para:17.6(d)(iiii) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
d. All passive fire safety measures, including all of the following.
iv. Duct dampers.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 UNSPECIFIED Para:17.6(d)(iv) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
d. All passive fire safety measures, including all of the following.
iv. Duct dampers.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 UNSPECIFIED Para:17.6(d)(v) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
d. All passive fire safety measures, including all of the following.
v. Fire shutters.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(e) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
e. All of the following.
i. Fire detector heads.
ii. Smoke detector heads.
iii. Alarm call points.
iv. Detection/alarm control boxes.
v. Alarm sounders.
vi. Emergency communications systems.
vii. CCTV.
viii. Fire safety signage.
ix. Emergency lighting.
x. Fire extinguishers.
xi. Dry or wet fire mains and other firefighting equipment.
xii. Other interior facilities for the fire and rescue service.
xiii. Emergency control rooms.
xiv. Location of hydrants outside the building.
xv. Other exterior facilities for the fire and rescue service.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(f) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
f. All active fire safety measures, including both of the following.
i. Sprinkler system(s) design, including isolating valves and control equipment.
ii. Smoke control system(s) (or heating, ventilation and air conditioning system with a smoke control function) design, including mode of operation and control systems.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(g) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
g. Any high risk areas (e.g. heating machinery) and particular hazards.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(h) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
h. Plans of the building as built, showing the locations of the above.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(i) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
i. Both of the following.
i. Specifications of any fire safety equipment provided, including all of the following.
• Operational details.
• Operators’ manuals.
• Software.
• System zoning.
• Routine inspection, testing and maintenance schedules.
ii. Records of any acceptance or commissioning tests.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(i)(i) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
i. Both of the following.
i. Specifications of any fire safety equipment provided, including all of the following.
• Operational details.
• Operators’ manuals.
• Software.
• System zoning.
• Routine inspection, testing and maintenance schedules.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(i)(ii) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
i. Both of the following.
ii. Records of any acceptance or commissioning tests.

UNSPECIFIED

ADB1 2019 Para:17.6(j) Additional information for complex buildings

The records should include details of all of the following.
j. Any other details appropriate for the specific building.

UNSPECIFIED

This list was generated on Wed Aug 17 12:14:32 2022 UTC.